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Solon and the Seisakhtheia – Sixth Form Introduction

Solon

“‘Eγώ δέ τούτων έν μεταιχμίω | όρος кατέστην…“ (I stood like a horos in the middle ground between them) frag. 37

One of the most highly complex questions of the Archaic period is that of what Solon actually did and why. The scant references we have rely on a series of statements which are almost completely   beyond interpretation given the fact that Solon wrote in poetic form and Aristotle and Plutarch are centuries later. Modern interpretations are equally complex and at variance – Finley, (Ancient Slavery and Modern Ideology, 86–9) posited that the reforms were per se responsible for the inauguration of the Attic slave based economy, as the chattel slaves were required to replace the indentured labourers from the pre reform era. Indeed, he went so far as to state “one aspect of Greek history is the advance, hand in hand, of freedom and slavery” (ibid, 115).

This question to a great extent rests upon the true meaning of one word –  σεισάχθεια – seisakhtheia. Literally, it is the ‘throwing off of burdens’, and is often taken as meaning the cancellation of debts – debts which had left the social structure of the Athens of the time in a state of stasis – discord, an apparently insurmountable division in the populace which was on the verge of tearing apart the social structure and the subsequent dangers that such would bring. Was the seisakhtheia a freeing of the many from a vassal state where one sixth of their goods were payable in tax to the land owner (the hektemoroi) or was it a simple cancellation of the debts which they had built up, and is it a question which we can definitively answer?

“To the ancient historian searching for clues about Solon’s mysterious Seisachtheia, lines 3–7 of fragment 36 of the lawgiver’s poetry appear initially to offer a valuable hint. In the passage Solon boasts of removing from the land the horoi, which had been planted far and wide (őρους άνεîλον πολλαχή πεπηγότας). As a result, the land, once enslaved, is now free (πρόσθεν δέ δουλεύουσα, νϋν έλευθέρη). The author of the Constitution of the Athenians (12.4), followed by Plutarch (Solon 15), used these lines to support the view that the Seisachtheia was in effect a cancellation of debts.” (Harris, A NEW SOLUTION TO THE RIDDLE OF THE SEISACHTHEIA in The Dev. of the Polis in Archaic Greece, 2005, 65)

The change that Solon instigated was on perhaps the most fundamental level – it was to involve a change in the most basic identity of the citizen body. The division of the aristocratic and the non aristocratic based on birth was abandoned in favour of the divisions of social class based upon wealth. Meier sums this change in society, in practical, theoretical and, perhaps most importantly psychological levels, succinctly:

“Knowledge of public affairs and claims to participation must become so firmly rooted in the whole complex of common interests and attitudes that the relatively minor abstract interest in politics shared by many of the citizens can increase and, transcending all the obvious divisions among them, become a major interest shared by all. A usurper knows roughly what he wants and simply has to seek the power and opportunity he needs in order to realize his aims, but where the broad mass of the people is concerned it is necessary, at such an early stage of political evolution, first to awaken, and then to reinforce and perpetuate, the idea that they can win a regular and powerful position in the community. A new political role has to appear, not just a new player to take over an old role. This calls for social reasoning of a quite different and more abstract kind. Finally, since the first democracies in world history could presumably arise only as direct democracies, a readiness for serious commitment had to take shape among the citizens, and this meant nothing less than a transformation of social identity.” (Meier, The Greek Discovery of Politics,1990; 29)

In order for the changes to be implemented, they have to be first accepted, and this required, as stated, the ‘new political role’ in order that the altered system not be perceived as a simple change in nomenclature of the previous system. This does raise questions, however. The new census classes which Solon used to divide up the social structure, with the exception of the pentekosiomadimnoi were not new terms. The top class is the only one which had the numerical name – the others, (hippeis, zeugetai and thetes) appear to be more archaic terms, associated with the eupatridai – the ‘well-born’. Solon had been severely critical of the ruling classes, those who seemed to all intents desirous of resurrecting the full blown aristocracies of the Dark Ages:

“you who have pushed through to glut yourselves with many good things” (fr. 4c.2)

“(who) do not know how to restrain their greed or how to order their present festivities in the peacefulness of the banquet” (fr. 4.9-10)

The eupatridai dominated a system which

“…was oligarchic in all other respects and in particular the poor were enslaved to the rich…they worked the fields of the rich. All the land was in the hands of a few, and if the poor failed to pay their rents both they and their children were liable to seizure.” (Ath Pol 2.1)

The labour here was, by insinuation, indentured with the possibility of slavery for not only the labourer but also his family on the failure of payment. This is the situation to which Harris, cited above, was referring, and indeed the situation the reforms of Solon in his social restructuring were battling in the creation of the new roles to which Meier referred. These were, by intuitive process, necessary as there must, by definition have been those outside of the eupatridai who were prospering on an economic level, as, had there not been, it is questionable as to whether the class reforms based on wealth would have had any point – after all, the majority of those who, in the seventh century, had been the indentured labourers were to remain in the lowest theses class post reform, and as such main outside the high political roles with only a membership of the ekklesia as their sole political right. In liberating the land (πρόσθεν δέ δουλεύουσα, νϋν έλευθέρη) Solon was not claiming to have removed the horoi:

“The act of removing boundary-markers was considered a serious crime. Horoi that marked boundaries to private land were expected to remain fixed and enjoyed the protection of Zeus Horios ([Dem.] 7.39–40). Plato in the Lam (8.842e–843b) condemns their removal as an act of sacrilege, the crime of ‘moving what must not be moved’. Other sources reveal that in several poleis magistrates could punish this crime with severe fines. Are we to believe that Solon in fr. 36 was boasting about committing a crime?” (Harris, op. cit, 56)

Solon, as said at the start, proclaims that HE stood as a horos – a boundary marker which, under threat of divine punishment, could neither be moved nor ignored. He, as the reformer, was the immutable boundary marker between the two sides – the eupatridai and those who stood outside the ruling oligarchic class. Had the meaning by Solon been such that he referred to a literal moving of the boundary stones, then not only would he be boasting of what was both a criminal and indeed sacrilegious act, but also rendering his metaphorical incarnation as a horos an irrelevancy, thereby invalidating any claims to reform that he would make – the fact that his reforms DID take place and were followed through shows that this was not the case: fr. 5

“έστην άμφιβαλών кρατερòν σάкος άμφοτέροισι, νιкάν δ’ ούк εϊασ’ ούδετέρους άδίкως”

(held a mighty shield over both sides and did not allow either side to enjoy an unjust triumph)

The constant refrain is holding the middle ground and showing favour to neither one side nor the other. This was NOT, however, any move towards an egalitarian system, despite the move towards the democratic processes of the following centuries. Ath. Pol. names him “the first champion of the people” – the oppression of the people in Solon’s own words “πόλεμόν θεϋδοντ επεγείρει” (rouses war from its slumber) fr. 4, a decidedly overt warning of the unavoidable consequences of a pre reform status quo. A remaining question is why those who were already in the position of the ruling class were willing to accept the reforms when these would apparently undermine their politically and ergo legally dominant position? Solon’s

“poems too testIfy to his concern to foster a wider understanding of political affairs. We do not know the size of the circle in which Solon wished to encourage and facilitate a stronger commitment to politics. It is clear, that politIcal discussion took place among a wide public. Solon hImself put hIs program to the citizens. Admittedly none of this produced a readiness for regular political commitment, and Athens subsequently succumbed to tyranny, which the great majority of its citizens apparently dId not find unwelcome.” (Meier, op cit, 47)

Did they recognise that the neighbouring states problems and civil wars and serious strife were uncontrollable in the long run under an oligarchic or a tyrannical system, yet that the insecurity would lead to their playing a part in the dominant subsequent tyranny under the Pesistratids, a tyranny which, as Meier points out, was at least accepted if not openly welcomed by the greater part of the Athenian citizen body? In the 620’s (?), as Plutarch recounts:

“When the Megarians had expelled Theagenes their tyrant, for a short time they were sober and sensible in their government (politeia). But later when the popular leaders (demagogoi) poured out untempered freedom for them, as Plato says, they were completely corrupted, and, among their shocking acts of misconduct toward the wealthy, the poor would enter their homes and insist upon being entertained and banqueted sumptuously. But if they did not receive what they demanded, they would treat all the household with violence and insult (hubris). Finally, they enacted a decree whereby they received back again the interest that they happened to have paid their creditors, calling the measure “return interest.” (Mor. 295c–d)

The Athenians could look to next door Megara and see what the results of an unfettered freedom for the people could, and likely would, bring to Athens were she to undergo a similar revolution – the Megaran situation was still fresh in the minds of the eupatridai and they would evidently have no desire to experience the same as their fellows, many of whom would be relations either by marriage or terms of guest friendship. Yet the warnings of the impending disaster for the eupatridai are made clear, and, despite his birth as one of the eupatritid class, where his sympathies on this front lay:

“Restrain your mighty hearts in your breasts, you who have pursued every good thing to excess, and let your pride be in moderation ; for WE shall not obey, nor will these things be perfect for you.” (fr. 4c, 5-8 (Ath Pol 5.3))

Solon’s achievement, IF his own words are to be believed, were in that ‘ξυνήγαγον δήμον’ (I brought the people together). Whether he did or not remains a highly debated question. The ideas and the moving to the fore of the right thinking and the readiness to participate – the opening of the social progression now dependant upon changes in circumstances as opposed to birth were certainly long term results of the consequent changes after Solon. In his own words cited in Plutarch’s “Life of Solon” to finish:

“πολλοὶ γὰρ πλουτεῦσι κακοί, ἀγαθοὶ δὲ πένονται:

ἀλλ’ ἡμεῖς αὐτοῖς οὐ διαμειψόμεθα

τῆς ἀρετῆς τὸν πλοῦτον: ἐπεὶ τὸ μὲν ἔμπεδον αἰεί,

χρήματα δ’ ἀνθρώπων ἄλλοτε ἄλλος ἔχει.”

(Some wicked men are rich, some good are poor;

We will not change our virtue for their store:

Virtue’s a thing that none can take away,

But money changes owners all the day.)

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“Tryst With Destiny” Jawaharlal Nehru, August 14th 1947

“Long years ago we made a tryst with destiny, and now the time comes when we shall redeem our pledge, not wholly or in full measure, but very substantially. At the stroke of the midnight hour, when the world sleeps, India will awake to life and freedom. A moment comes, which comes but rarely in history, when we step out from the old to the new, when an age ends, and when the soul of a nation, long supressed, finds utterance. It is fitting that at this solemn moment we take the pledge of dedication to the service of India and her people and to the still larger cause of humanity.

At the dawn of history India started on her unending quest, and trackless centuries are filled with her striving and the grandeur of her success and her failures. Through good and ill fortune alike she has never lost sight of that quest or forgotten the ideals which gave her strength. We end today a period of ill fortune and India discovers herself again. The achievement we celebrate today is but a step, an opening of opportunity, to the greater triumphs and achievements that await us. Are we brave enough and wise enough to grasp this opportunity and accept the challenge of the future?

Freedom and power bring responsibility. The responsibility rests upon this Assembly, a sovereign body representing the sovereign people of India. Before the birth of freedom we have endured all the pains of labour and our hearts are heavy with the memory of this sorrow. Some of those pains continue even now. Nevertheless, the past is over and it is the future that beckons to us now.

That future is not one of ease or resting but of incessant striving so that we may fulfil the pledges we have so often taken and the one we shall take today. The service of India means the service of the millions who suffer. It means the ending of poverty and ignorance and disease and inequality of opportunity. The ambition of the greatest man of our generation has been to wipe every tear from every eye. That may be beyond us, but as long as there are tears and suffering, so long our work will not be over.

And so we have to labour and to work, and work hard, to give reality to our dreams. Those dreams are for India, but they are also for the world, for all the nations and peoples are too closely knit together today for any one of them to imagine that it can live apart Peace has been said to be indivisible; so is freedom, so is prosperity now, and so also is disaster in this One World that can no longer be split into isolated fragments.

To the people of India, whose representatives we are, we make an appeal to join us with faith and confidence in this great adventure. This is no time for petty and destructive criticism, no time for ill-will or blaming others. We have to build the noble mansion of free India where all her children may dwell.

The appointed day has come—the day appointed by destiny—and India stands forth again, after long slumber and struggle, awake, vital, free and independent. The past clings on to us still in some measure and we have to do much before we redeem the pledges we have so often taken. Yet the turning-point is past, and history begins anew for us, the history which we shall live and act and others will write about.

It is a fateful moment for us in India, for all Asia and for the world. A new star rises, the star of freedom in the East, a new hope comes into being, a vision long cherished materializes. May the star never set and that hope never be betrayed!

We rejoice in that freedom, even though clouds surround us, and many of our people are sorrow-stricken and difficult problems encompass us. But freedom brings responsibilities and burdens and we have to face them in the spirit of a free and disciplined people.

On this day our first thoughts go to the architect of this freedom, the Father of our Nation, who, embodying the old spirit of India, held aloft the torch of freedom and lighted up the darkness that surrounded us. We have often been unworthy followers of his and have strayed from his message, but not only we but succeeding generations will remember this message and bear the imprint in their hearts of this great son of India, magnificent in his faith and strength and courage and humility. We shall never allow that torch of freedom to be blown out, however high the wind or stormy the tempest.

Our next thoughts must be of the unknown volunteers and soldiers of freedom who, without praise or reward, have served India even unto death.

We think also of our brothers and sisters who have been cut off from us by political boundaries and who unhappily cannot share at present in the freedom that has come. They are of us and will remain of us whatever may happen, and we shall be sharers in their good [or] ill fortune alike.

The future beckons to us. Whither do we go and what shall be our endeavour? To bring freedom and opportunity to the common man, to the peasants and workers of India; to fight and end poverty and ignorance and disease; to build up a prosperous, democratic and progressive nation, and to create social, economic and political institutions which will ensure justice and fullness of life to every man and woman.

We have hard work ahead. There is no resting for any one of us till we redeem our pledge in full, till we make all the people of India what destiny intended them to be. We are citizens of a great country on the verge of bold advance, and we have to live up to that high standard. All of us, to whatever religion we may belong, are equally the children of India with equal rights, privileges and obligations. We cannot encourage communalism or narrow-mindedness, for no nation can be great whose people are narrow in thought or in action.

To the nations and peoples of the world we send greetings and pledge ourselves to cooperate with them in furthering peace, freedom and democracy.

And to India, our much-loved motherland, the ancient, the eternal and the ever-new, we pay our reverent homage and we bind ourselves afresh to her service.

JAI HIND.”

Literature and In Our Time Episodes

Inspired by Andy Keen – Literature on the In Our Time Podcasts – Divided into:

Individual Works, Authors and Poets, Eras and Themes and Miscellaneous

Works

Eugene Onegin (Andrew Kahn, Emily Finer, Simon Dixon) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b08tvjjq

Gaskell’s North and South (Sally Shuttleworth, Dinah Birch, Jenny Uglow) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b08h0654

Four Quartets (David Moody, Fran Brearton, Mark Ford) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b0858w43

The Wasteland and Modernity (Steve Connor, Lawrence Rainey, Fran Brearton) ) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b00hlb38

Epic of Gilgamesh (Andrew George, Frances Reynolds, Martin Worthington) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b080wbrq

Animal Farm (Steven Connor, Mary Vincent, Robert Colls) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b07wgkz4

Songs of Innocence and Experience (Sir Jonathan Bate, Sarah Haggarty, John Lee) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b07gh4pg

Tess of the d’Urbervilles (Francis O’Gorman, Jane Thomas, Dinah Birch) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b078zcrr

Aurora Leigh (Margaret Reynolds, Daniel Karlin, Karen O’Brien) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b0745d37

Tristan and Iseult (Laura Ashe, Juliette Wood, Mark Chinca) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b06sny88

Emma (Jane Todd, John Mullan, Emma Clery) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b06pd3b9

Jane Eyre (Dinah Birch, Karen O’Brien, Sara Lyons) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b05y11v8

Beowulf (Laura Ashe, Clare Lees, Andy Orchard) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b0542xt7

Icelandic Sagas (Carolyne Larrington, Elizabeth Ashman Rowe, Emily Lethbridge) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b01s8qx9

Le Morte d’Arthur (Helen Cooper, Helen Fulton, Laura Ashe) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b01pp989

Kafka’s Der Prozeß (The Trial) (Elizabeth Boa, Steve Connor, Ritchie Robertson) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b04pv8j1

Mrs Dalloway (Dame Hermione Lee, Jane Goldman, Kathryn Simpson) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b048033q

Tristram Shandy (Judith Hawley, John Mullan, Mary Newbould) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b0418phf

The Tempest (Sir Jonathan Bate, Erin Sullivan, Katherine Duncan-Jones) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b03h6px5

King Lear (Sir Jonathan Bate, Katherine Duncan-Jones, Catherine Belsey) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b0090s0l

Decline and Fall (David Bradshaw, John Bowen, Ann Pasternak Slater) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b01qmbsc

Joyce: Ulysses (Steven Connor, Jeri Johnson, Richard Brown) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b01jrldv

Joyce: Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (Roy Foster, Jeri Johnson, Katherine Mullin) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b00nyxvr

Robinson Crusoe (Karen O’Brien, Judith Hawley, Bob Owens) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b018flp4

Tennyson: In Memoriam (Dinah Birch, Seamus Perry, Jane Wright) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b0124pnq

Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage (Sir Jonathan Bate, Jane Stabler, Bernhard Jackson) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b00xmx42

Silas Marner (Dinah Birch, Rosemary Ashton, Valentine Cunningham) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b00q4310

Brave New World (David Bradshaw, Daniel Pick, Michele Barrett) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b00jn8bc

Swift: A Modest Proposal (John Mullan, Judith Hawley, Ian McBride) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b00h3650

Dante’s Inferno (Margaret Kean, John Took, Claire Honess) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b00f05zj

Wordsworth: The Prelude (Rosemary Ashton, Stephen Gill, Emma Mason) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b00899w0

Conrad: Heart Of Darkness (Susan Jones, Robert Hampson, Laurence Davies) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b0077474

Uncle Tom’s Cabin (Celeste-Marie Bernier, Sarah Meer, Clive Webb) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p003c1bp

Authors and Poets

Christine de Pizan (Helen Swift, Miranda Griffin, Marilynn Desmond) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b08sksb4

Chaucer (Carolyne Larrington, Helen Cooper, Ardis Butterfield) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p003hycq

Emily Dickinson (Fiona Green, Linda Freedman, Paraic Finnerty) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b08p5lbp

John Clare (Jonathan Bate, Mina Gorji, Simon Kovesi) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b08cstfr

Fanny Burney (Nicole Pohl, Judith Hawley, John Mul;lan ) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b05r3zjk

Rudyard Kipling (Howard Booth, Daniel Karlin, Jan Montefiore) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b04l3852

Chekhov (Catriona Kelly, Cynthia Marsh, Rosamund Bartlett) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b01r5qc1

Annie Besant (Lawrence Goldman, David Stack, Yasmin Khan) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b01jxtd7

Christina Rossetti (Dinah Birch, Rhian Williams, Nicholas Shrimpton) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b017mvwy

Siegfried Sassoon (Jean Moorcroft, Fran Brearton, Max Egremont) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b007mvl9

Alexander Pope (John Mullan, Jim McLaverty, Valerie Rumbold) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p0038x97

Samuel Johnson (John Mullan, Jim McLaverty, Judith Hawley) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p003k9k5

Kit Marlowe (Katherine Duncan-Jones, Sir Jonathan Bate, Emma Smith) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p003k9d6

John Milton (John Carey, Lisa Jardine, Blair Worden) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p00548bg

Oscar Wilde (Valentine Cunningham, Regina Gagnier, Neil Sammells) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p00547m3

Charles Dickens (Rosemary Ashton, Michael Slater, John Bowen) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p00547hx

Eras and Themes

12th Century Renaissance (Laura Ashe, Elisabeth van Houts, Giles Gasper) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b07z6vzq

The Blue Stockings (Karen O’Brien, Elizabeth Ager, Nicole Pohl ) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b045c0h9

Elizabethan Revenge (Sir Jonathan Bate, Julie Sanders, Janet Clare) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b00l16vp

The Metaphysical Poets (Tom Healy, Julie Sanders, Tom Cain) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b00cbqhq

Victorian Pessimism (Dinah Birch, Rosemary Ashton, Peter Mandler) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b007d9k6

Epistolary Literature (John Mullan, Karen O’Brien, Brean Hammond) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b00775dh

Pastoral Literature (Helen Cooper, Laurence Lerner, Julie Sanders) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p003c1cs

Modernist Utopias (Jaon Carey, Steve Connor, Laura Marcus) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p003k9fz

Faust (Juliette Wood, Osman Durrani, Rosemary Ashton) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p004y2bt

The Later Romantics (Sir Jonathan Bate, Robert Woof, Jennifer Wallace) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p004y24r

Sensation (John Mullan, Lyn Pykett, Dinah Birch) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p005492t

Sensibility (Claire Tomalin, John Mullan, Dame Hermione Lee) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p005487n

The Epic (John Carey, Karen Edwards, Oliver Taplin) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p00548t1

Victorian Realism (Philip Davis, A.N.Wilson, Dinah Birch) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p00548ks

Yeats and Mysticism (Roy Foster, Warwick Gould, Brenda Maddox) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p00548b3

The Sonnett (Sir Frank Kermode, Phillis Levin, Sir Johnathan Bate) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p00547gy

Literary Modernism (John Carey, Laura Marcus, Valentine Cunningham) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p00547fv

Gothic (Chris Baldick, ANWilson, Emma Clery) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p0054792

Psychoanalysis and Literature (Adam Phillips, Malcolm Bowie, Lisa Appignanesi) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p00546y5

The Romantics (Sir Jonathan Bate, Rosemary Ashton, Nicholas Roe) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p00546ws

Shakespeare’s Work (Sir Frank Kermode, Michael Bogdanov, Germaine Greer) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p00546s8

Masculinity in Literature (Martin Amis, Cora Kaplan) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p00546lx

Tragedy (George Steiner, Catherine Belsey) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p005464v

The Novel (DJTaylor, Gillian Beer) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p005463z

Shakespeare and Literary Criticism (Harold Bloom, Jacqueline Rose) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p00545dp

Miscellaneous

The Muses (Paul Cartledge, Angie Hobbs, Penelope Murray) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b07bft7v

The Scriblerus Club (John Mullen, Judith Hawley, Marcus Walsh) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p003k9cm

Early Solar Eclipses: Intro for Primary School

AUGUST WILL SEE A SOLAR ECLIPSE. NOTHING PARTICULARLY BEYOND AN INTERESTING EXPERIENCE FOR US, BUT IT WAS NOT ALWAYS SO.

“On the New Moon, month of Hiyar, the Sun was made shame and did descend in the day, Mars in attendance” (Description of Ugarit Eclipse)

Insc.jpeg      blog-andrew.stehlik.org

ARGUABLY the earliest solar eclipse recorded was the Ugarit Eclipse (there is an apocryphal tale of two Chinese, Ho and Hi, the “Drunk Astronomers” from 2137 BC ), believed to have been on the 3rd May 1375 BC, observed in the port city of Ugarit on the Eastern Mediterranean littoral (coastal region) in modern day Syria.

 

locations_babylon1

The tablet above (which records all solar eclipses between 518 and 465 BC) is typical of the innumerable astronomical records which were kept by the astronomer/astrologer priests of the great city of Babylon, based upon their constant observations and then recorded in Akkadian cuneiform. The solar and lunar eclipses were not all they recorded – the movements of the planets they could observe, in particular the “sacred stars” Mercury and Venus – tablets recording observations from 1700 BC for the 19 years to 1681 BC. They also recorded (some 650 years later!!) the full solar eclipse of 31st July 1063 BC “it turned day into night”; the Assyrian astronomers continued with this tradition, particularly the full eclipse of 15th June 763 BC in Nineveh (“There was insurrection in the city of Aššur: in the month Sivan, the Sun was in an eclipse”). These observations over such an enormous time period allowed for Babylonian astronomers to work out the Saros Cycle (a period of 18 years 11.33 days) after which the solar and lunar eclipse cycles repeat. This meant the, despite their not being able to observe the eclipses necessarily (they occur at repeated times, but on varying observable areas on the Earth’s surface), these astronomers were able accurately to predict the dates and times on which eclipses would occur.

If Dracula had put his testimony…? With apologies to Bram Stoker!

Recorded in a Great Ledger in an obscure dialect

2nd September

IT IS SAID that we are each of us the sum of our experiences and memories. Here, I shall put down the record of the experiences and the memories which made me and brought me to the struggle to survive – that struggle which everything must face and conquer, or to which it must surrender and cease to be. Each being which can reason understands this struggle – those which cannot reason simply do by instinct. Who has the right to decide upon those who will survive, those who will breed and expand their numbers? Why does one feel he has the right to make the decision as to who will be crushed, who will be oppressed and who will be destroyed, gradually eradicated and inevitably annihilated, simply to appease his desires and vanquish his fears? Is it inevitably right that the strong will survive and the weak will be wiped from the face of the Earth? Each must adapt according to his or her needs in order to survive, to move to a different environment, a different home, when this is the only way to continue to exist, even when the system which has been a success since the start of human existence would seem logically to deny such a necessity. Where one group consumes all that is around them, spreading destruction, cruelty and Empire, though beneath a veneer of bringing freedom and civilisation, are there limits which can be imposed upon those who must fight to continue, to survive, or are those whose existence literally depends upon their struggle and their ability to fight back, freed from the moral restraints imposed by those who feel themselves dominant? I am what I was as much as that which I am and both parts, both summations of experience and my memories of both will intermingle, allow me freedom and the ability to move amongst those who oppress, those who would gladly destroy all that is different to them, those who would be dominant over all others, both those different to them and those of their own kind whom they deem different, to their own profit.

31st October

There are but two universal emotions, common to all things which walk the face of the Earth where there is an ability to feel such – hatred and fear, the one feeding the other and being fed in return, expanding and embracing all things as a dense fog swamps the moorlands, the forest and the coasts, blinding those caught up in its gloom, swamping all clarity, cutting out light, allowing those who have the ability and the knowledge to use the gloom to their benefit to rise up and wield power. This ability allows for an all pervading control through the mastering of the hatred through the power of fear. Where fear is strong enough and the fog (metaphorical, of the mind or literal) is dense enough, control and manipulation can be absolute – fear of the unavoidable consequences of not adhering to the behaviours which the instigators of the fear and hatred demand. Power and control are the things which bring order, and without order there can be only chaos; this has been understood since the earliest of times. Such power and control can be practised in innumerable fashions, they can be covert or overt, they can demonise any method of power and control which is different to their own, rendering the other an incarnation of evil and cruelty, exalting their own systems and beliefs by casting the shadow of fear and terror onto that which is simply different: the more open and overt the opposing system be, the easier such demonisation becomes, though it could easily be argued that that which is overt is that which is honest, not hiding behind hypocrisy, lies and twisted adaptations of the truth in order to achieve its ultimate goal.

These are the questions which expanding change raises. Centuries long, from the defeat of the Ottoman and the Sultan`s desire to exert such power as I wrote of above, we held sway in the farthest reaches of Europe. We of the Carpathians: the Wallachians, the Magyars, the Saxons, the Szekelys and the Dacians, we were forgotten by the great powers which lay to our West and were left well alone. We rejected the external powers, both spiritual and temporal, where we could and we remained true to our ways which have worked, which have defended us from the corruption which was brought by such changes. We who ruled were left to rule, such was our right and our duty as the defenders of the culture and the civilisation which has been ours for so long, uncorrupted and true to the ways of ancestors. As we were abandoned and left to defeat the invaders under our great leaders, the greatest of whom was the Illustrious Voivode, my ancestor my memory, my other. Great Vlad, the fighter, the warrior the true defender of freedom from the yoke of foreign oppression, yet hated for his successes, feared for his methods, demonised by those whom he defended, whose borders he kept safe from that which they most feared at the time, turning this lineage into that which they most fear now. Hate your defender, and he will no longer defend you – fear, without obedience to that fear, can signify naught but the struggle which must end in the destruction of one or the other, ofttimes both, no matter how long that struggle be. And unlike those who would stand against me, time is not something which I lack.

30th November

It was this need to move out, to expand as they were expanding, to fight back against the new invasion, this time from another direction, to expand in the face of the plague of these who wish to destroy us totally, this was the reason that I studied, researched, read and mastered everything of theirs that I was able to acquire, first learning and then trying from my books to master the English language – the tongue of the huge Empire already won and the new, expanding power over the Oceans – and ultimately I contacted the firm of Hawkins Solicitors through whom I had decided to purchase properties in England, the centre of worldly power, the place where I would best be able to fit in. Titles eventually become empty things to those who bear them, but in societies where there is still respect for the aristocratic structure, though in truth it holds little true power, they are useful in achieving that which is required – young societies have little respect for anything – they have not existed long enough to be respected anymore than they respect, but older societies understand the need for hierarchical power and they are well enough mannered to leave alone those who crave solitude and freedom from the expectations and demands of social chains, especially where that person be foreign and therefore eccentric, and most especially where that eccentric foreigner be titled. My strength will inevitably be in that I understand this and can use that understanding to my own ends over the blind folly of those who will surround me. So it was that I wrote to Hawkins and requested of him a representative who would travel to my lands and my castle with the deeds of entitlement and papers requisite for my purchasing of properties in England. In my lands, in my castle, I would be the master, I would be dominant and I would be surrounded by that which is familiar to me, which breathes the honour, the power and the influence of my lineage, where the people around me would be under my say and I would be unchallenged in my authority. For my plans to succeed and for my wishes and needs to be carried through, this will be necessary – I must be able to act with neither distraction nor hindrance and be able to control the speed and the way in which the legal necessities will be carried through. I must, moreover, be free to act once the properties are mine, and act with alacrity such that I might be settled and ready to move against my enemies before they can realise what is happening – I must be part of them and have disappeared in plain sight before there can be any move against me, otherwise all will be lost.

 

15th January

I am this day in receipt of papers from Hawkins Solicitors which state that they have found one property and are busy in the search for others which they feel will meet my requirements. It will, however, be necessary for there to be a delay due to the weather of a Central European winter. I am assured that all will be ready and will be brought to me either towards the end of April or the start of May. I am arranging for there to be letters and payments sent to the inns and hostelries in my lands in which the representative of Hawkins` firm will overnight, as well as booking places and paying the costs on the carriages which he will take after he reaches the end of the railway systems. I shall use the time available to me to immerse myself in my studies and my preparations for the visit of the representative, and in readying all that will need to be transported as soon as will be possible after the properties are transferred to me. Now, I must be ordered, well rested and nourished such that I may be ready.

 

21st March

I have returned from travels to the great cities of the East. I have wandered the streets of Istanbul, that which once was the wondrous Orthodox glory of Constantinople, vanquished and washed in the blood of those who were caught inside in 1453. The last vestige of the Empire of the Romans, brought to ruin under the silken heel of the Sultan Mehmet II, slaughter on a scale scarce imaginable carried through by the Janissaries, those taken as children, corrupted of all humanity, nothing other than an unquestioning loyalty to their Master, military training second to none and a determination to massacre any and all who stood against their Ottoman overlord. This was the atmosphere, the education and the training under which the young Prince Vlad was raised, sent by his father to the Janissary Corps as a hostage to ensure the passivity of the Wallachians and all the other Christian peoples of the Carpathians. It was here that he learned that the only way to meet the cruelty and fear which the Turkish armies engendered was not through matching them man for man on the open field of battle, that place where they were almost unbeatable, but by the Way of the Wolf: the fast attack, vicious and merciless and then fading into the forests, the mountains and the fog. Stealth, tearing and rending the hamstrings of the armies, slashing their supply routes and making an example of all those who were now wandering hopeless. It was this last that gained the Great Voivode the cognomen by which he was so well known – Tepes, the Impaler. When the armies and the emissaries of the Sultan saw done unto their kind that which they did unto others, their terror was palpable, it could be scented on the air, blown on the wind, the flavour of spilt life force which flowed down the stakes and soaked into the grounds, feeding the plants, the living creatures which crawled there, lapped up by the wolves and foxes, transferring the lividity of the impaled and giving it to others. Was it here that the realisation of the power that could be gained in the consumption of this life force, that the imbibing of blood, was recognised, that it brought with it concomitant rewards in the gift of immortality, though at a cost some would class too high? Was it here that we chose to abandon all that had abandoned us, or so we felt? Was it here we rejected the morality of the civilisations which preached love and peace, forgiveness and unity of all mankind whilst massacring all who disagreed, all who believe otherwise, all who questioned their ultimate authority, were that at the point of a Janissary spear or amid the flames of the bonfires of the `heretics` and the instruments designed solely to inflict such pain and agony before the cold release of an unmarked grave? That society which called the people of Sion chosen of God, or of the Book, and yet used them as a scapegoat to rob, crush, destroy whenever they had need of a victim? Was this truly where we chose our other path? Was it an action of the moment, untested and a reaction to that which we saw all around us, or was it a gradual process, reasoned and deliberately chosen as a defence, our only way of survival? It was so long ago that the memories which might answer these questions are faded to the realms of legend and myth, repeated by the common people, exaggerated, and changed from generation to generation, metamorphosed from that which might have been an original truth to that which can scarce be recognised. Such tales are useful; them we allow as they are another layer under which we can conceal our reality, which continues to fan the flames of the fear, which gives power and control. The records contradict each other, the Magyars under Corvinus were determined that they would be seen as the great saviours of the Catholic civilisation, the defenders against the Ottoman threat, ignoring the true defender, crushing the stories of what was truly done and turning the Great Voivode into the monster which the modern world conjures him to be. Was it their determination to demonise Prince Vlad, to ensure that he was only to be associated with impaling and extreme cruelty rather than the truth of why it was done, that in reality ensured that we, we who know the truth, rejected them and all they stood for? Dracula, Son of the Dragon, scion of the great chivalric order was to be rendered a monster of mythical proportion? Then perhaps that was where the choice was made? I cannot bring myself to wonder any more on such questions, questions which are now perhaps irrelevant. The world has changed; the Ottoman is a failing Empire, though supported by its former enemies of Britain and France when she fought the Great Bear, the Czar and his forces in Crimea. He will not last much longer, of that I am convinced, and I have seen the rise and the fall of earthly powers. The uniting force of the Catholics has been shattered since the German Monk spoke out and a monstrous king decided his lust was more important than his dedication to his faith. All these twists and turns, the slaughter of Catholics by Protestants, and of Protestants by Catholics, Sunni by Shia and Shia by Sunni, where these men have used a simple faith of love as an instrument in their corruption, greed and hatred, I have witnessed from my own place of power. They call us barbaric, evil and superstitious fools, especially as they have turned from faith to the new secular power of their science – that which they see as the unquestioned authority which will bring them into a great period of freedom, peace and honest civilisation. On how many occasions have I heard this through my time? How many faiths, philosophies and ways of thinking have I seen make promises which they cannot keep, and which those who control them know from the earliest times that they cannot fulfil? All that is evident is that the weapons of slaughter grow ever more efficient in achieving their ends, and that the goals of conquering, ruling and destroying are no longer on a level where one country fights its neighbour, but now on a global level. The curse of humanity is unleashed on the world on a level that could never have been imagined at the time of the Great Voivode`s rule, deaths on a scale which to Vlad Tepes would have been unimaginable. Who, then is the greater monster? It is against this that I have struggled and fought for longer than I can even begin to remember, and a struggle which I can no longer keep beyond my borders. I shall again take this fight to the lair of my enemy, I shall again release the Way of the Wolf, and I shall again consume the life force of my enemies. I SHALL NOT GIVE WAY NOW ANY MORE THAN WE DID THEN. This I swear by all that my Ancestors held dear.

 

5th May

The night before last, the representative of Hawkins’ Solicitors arrived at Klausenburgh, staying at the Hotel Royale. His name is Harker, Jonathan Harker, and I believe that he bears the papers I need for the transference of ownership of the properties in London to me. He must next be heading towards Bistritz, the town to which the firm have sent their correspondence with me – a town which lies under my purview. I know that he stayed in the hotel all night, I watched him from a distance as he attempted to sleep in order that I might recognise him when required. The annoying continual howling of a terrified cur was all that disturbed the night, a terror stemming from the animal’s ability to sense the presence of those things which lie beyond the pathetic innate abilities of man. There are dangers in our lands, dangers which the the young foreigner will not recognise, nor will he understand. I require his presence in order that I achieve my ends, and for this I shall protect him, accompanying him without his realisation.

At the rise of the night on the following day, Harker arrived in Bistritz, from where he would subsequently take the carriage through the Borgo Pass, the place where he would part ways with their world and enter mine. I had already arranged and paid for the place on the carriage as well as his accommodation in the Gasthof Zur Goldenen Krone. It is a quaint hostelry and one typical of the Saxons who dwell in my lands. I had instructed the landlord and his wife by letter to ensure that Harker was made welcome and would receive the best of all that they had to offer. I had further sent an accompanying missive addressed to Harker himself, and which was to be delivered into his hands immediately upon his arrival. A simple letter, giving him instructions on which diligence he was booked to travel on the following day and welcoming him to my beautiful land, assuring him of my joy at his arrival and the impending meeting between us. I have done everything to ensure that Harker will be relaxed and perhaps even happy to arrive at my castle, without fear, without discomfiture at the thought of encountering an arrogant and aloof aristocrat who disdains his presence. He must come of his own volition; he must be in a position that he feels he is visiting a friend in whose home he will be made welcome and may comfortably be himself. There can be no feeling on his part of compunction; freely must he choose the path before him, and that requires that he have no suspicion of the truth of the reason that he is here among us and the ultimate goal of my purchase of properties in Harker’s homeland. For this reason, I have instructed the landlord of the Gasthof that neither he nor his wife must answer any questions the Englishman might have – something which, as I point out in my letter, is easy by exaggerating the problems of language. They are my people and they know, I trust, the consequences of disobeying my instructions as their rightful overlord.

I chose the date well. This day on which Harker travelled was St George’s Eve. He was to reach the Pass after the fall of the sun and the darkness of enchanting night would frighten those who could not see. The superstitions of those peasants who were accompanying Harker in the diligence would have been so deep and overwhelming for his Protestant upbringing that he must surely have treated it as the hysteria of primitive folk, steeped in their simplistic and unscientific faith. He will continue to reject their warnings as folly – he will, or course, have rejected them politely as is the want of the educated Englishman, but nevertheless they were rejected. Such will aid me in my dealings with him, of course. As the well read and equally educated aristocrat, I will be able to build a bridge of trust between him and me, and encourage his scorn and rejection of the peasant stock who live in the area of my castle (though few they be) until it is too late for him to affect my plans in any meaningful way. I can do naught but laugh at the irony – their progress and rejection all that they class as superstition and folly is that which ensures my safety and the achievement of my plans – the ultimate fulfilment of my will.

My carriage, drawn by thoroughbred horses, as black as the night, left in good time for the meeting with the diligence on which Harker was travelling, yet, when it arrived at the place I had arranged, the diligence was already there. The horses which pulled their carriage were sweating profusely, foaming at the mouth, the whites of their eyes and their heaving chests showing how hard they had been pushed. From the windows, the anxious, nay frightened visages of my guest’s fellow passengers in the light of the full moon, then fading into darkness as the clouds scudded over the skies. The wind gathered the distant thunder clouds, and the air was heavy and oppressive as the power of the storm encroached from the distant mountain tops. My coach approached, silently, my horses trained to be quiet when stealth was required, the lamps extinguished. The diligence had stopped, its driver silhouetted against the lamps which burned and flickered yellow against the night, like two eyes which glowed ineffectively to strain and see, though impossible so to do. The driver glanced at his pocket watch, and spoke to the passengers in his dialect – quiet so that the sound might not travel, but the hearing of those whom they fear is a keen as that of the Wolf. “There is yet an hour before the due time.” The passengers taught expressions slackened and a look of relief of sorts overcame them all. Harker had climbed down from the diligence and was looking to the driver, seemingly confounded at the lack of anyone to meet him. The driver spoke to him in the most appalling German, trying to convince him to climb back into the carriage and continue to Bukovina, only returning either the following day or the day after. The look on Harker’s face let see that he was contemplating agreeing to the wishes of the driver. This was not permissible. My carriage advanced into the place where they had stopped, startling their horses such that they began to panic. The driver had to give up on his beseeching Harker to abandon his duty and hold his team that did not run off. The foolish peasants began to cross themselves and clutch at amulets around their necks, screams and imprecations emitting from their panicking mouths. What folly! My caleche overtook their diligence and drew up next to them.

“My, you are early tonight, friend!” The driver of the diligence went pale, an expression of abject fear across his face. He stammered some ridiculous excuse, attempting to blame Harker’s impatience for the early arrival – the poor Englishmen simply sat there confounded by the exchange in a language of which he understood not a word, unable to defend himself against the accusation. “Speak that the English Herr will understand!”

The driver repeated his statement in his atrocious, yet intelligible German. He knew better than to deny the command. When it was made clear to him that not only had his early arrival been preempted by the even earlier arrival of my caleche, but that his attempts to convince Harker to abandon his duties to Hawkins’ Solicitors and to his client, and to continue to Bukovina had been heard. “…You cannot deceive me, my friend. I know too much, and my horses are swift.” He would never have outridden nor outrun my thoroughbreds. He had no answer to give. The silence was only broken as one of the passengers muttered quietly “Denn die Todten reiten schnell!” For the dead ride quickly – so, despite the fact that I had donned a highly concealing disguise, they knew me, recognised me for who I am. I could not help but smile as they looked on, though the fact they all immediately looked away told that they had also recognised the warning from my eyes, the warning of inescapable revenge were they to break my anonymity and revel my identity to Harker.

After a moment’s silence, during which every one of them turned to the side or lowered his or her eyes in submission, I demanded that the traveller’s luggage be brought from the diligence and positioned on my caleche, which they did with an amazing speed. Harker descended from the diligence last. I pulled him up by the arm to the seat and then, taking my place, I whipped the horse with the reins, leaving behind the diligence to set off with all haste in the direction of Bukovina. Harker was now in my lands and the outside world could have no bearing on his hopes and deeds until I released him and let him return at my whim, if such is to be my whim. On this I am not yet decided. The cold of the night must have been biting for him, so I stopped the horses and wrapped a great cloak around my passenger and a travelling rug around his knees, pointing out to Harker that a flask of plum brandy was in his easy reach should he so desire. It was completely dark other than the least of moonlight, and the next requirement to control Harker was simple – I went back and forth over the same few stretches of road – something which I knew he would realise, but that was of no importance, simply that he were totally disorientated, something which the concealed moon, the dark and his fatigue and confusion served to facilitate.

As midnight arrived, a chorus of howling dogs rang out through the valley, the sounds reverberating around us, a symphony of terror accompanying our presence in the valley, causing a panic in the horses which I was required to quell with soothing words and sounds. Then, the frightened howls of the domesticated gave way to the the purer, louder and much clearer chorus from the surrounding mountain slopes, the wolves greeting us as we left the domestication of the small farmers and made ready to head to the wild freedom beyond the roadway of the Pass. I held the now panicking under control by the power of words of comfort and the sheer power of will, taking up the reins and making at full pace for our destination through the enclosed passageway of interlocking trees overhead, like a soaring roof of a natural rather cathedral rather than one constructed by human hand. The storm was fast approaching, the rising winds gusting and bringing snows sweeping down from the heights of the mountain tops, the blizzard leaving a pure covering, concealing the dangers at the sides of the roads, the roadway, though, still like a black knife slicing through the ever deepening drifts. The dogs faded behind, the symphony of the wolves grew ever stronger, unleashing the most primordial of feelings among all that heard them. The night of St. George’s Eve – the night where the primordial holds sway over all else. The blue lights which flared up, showing where there are treasures and curses concealed in the ground. At each we stopped and what was done was of necessity, my passenger, whether through fatigue, cold, fear or a combination of all three, drifted in and out of sleep, an uneasy and disturbed sleep, shown in his occasional shouting out. Sometimes he was stirring as I returned from a flame, other times he was sleeping fitfully, his dreaming twisting with what he perceived as reality. As we advanced through the Pass, the flickering blue flames were at times near the roadside, but more often at a distance. At one, I went into the woods quite a distance to deal with the fire. The wolves had made a break in their song and had come down to the edge of the circle of view around the caleche. The horses were still enough under my sway, even at a distance, that, though fearful and verging on panic, they remained still. I sensed that my passenger had woken from his slumbers, however, and his panic, his terror were so great that they were as if tangible on the air. A break in the clouds bathed the wolves, MY wolves, in the pure silver of the moonlight, and as one, they took up their song of welcome again, though this caused a panic among the horses which I was hard pushed to quell. Harker began calling for me to return, slamming his hand on the side of the carriage in an attempt to startle the wolves – a foolhardy and pointless gesture, but one well meant with my safety at its heart. I was almost brought to laughter at the futility of it, but instead swept down to the clearing.

“My children, I thank you, but begone!” I commanded, the words in a language of so long ago, none who heard it would have understood, though words which still held meaning to the children of the night. I raise my arms and the clouds swept over the moon, cutting out the silvern glow and plunging all into the most profound darkness, allowing the horses to calm as I climbed back into the seat and urged them on at full pelt. We swept along the road, climbing ever higher until, out of the gloom, the dark solidity of my castle rose up. We had arrived.

Dracula: Whose testimony is missing and why? Sec. Eng. Lit.

“We were struck with the fact that in all the mass of material of which the record is composed, there is hardly one authentic document; nothing but a mass of typewriting, except the later notebooks of Mina and Seward and myself, and Van Helsing’s memorandum. We could hardly ask anyone, even did we wish to, to accept these as proofs of so wild a story.” (Dracula: 444–5)

“Dracula is more than a Gothic villain, however, more than the mercenary and mundane bandit that they too often turn out to be. As the sublime synthesis of the human and supernatural terrors of Gothic writing, he is both villain and ghostly diabolical agent whose magic and power cannot be reduced to mere tricks or effects of overindulgent, superstitious imagination: more than rational, he serves to elicit rather than dispel superstitious beliefs, demanding, not a return to reason and morality, but a reawakening of spiritual energies and sacred awe.” (Fred Botting: Gothic (The New Critical Idiom) Routledge, 1999 95)

LITERARY analysis has given varying interpretations of the vampire Count over the time since the novel’s appearance in 1897: symbol of evil, incarnation of nightmares, and most especially representation of sexual degeneracy among others. However, as Hughes has pointed out:

Modern criticism’s preoccupation with sexuality dominates – and indeed inhibits the development of – the debate on vampirism…This recourse to sexuality, however, arguably represents – for both fictional character and commentating critic – the edge of an epistemological problem. Quite simply, the vampire may not be as sexual as the preoccupations of the perceiving discourses suggest it ought to be. (Fictional Vampires in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries in in A New Companion to the Gothic,199)

How, then can we avoid such a preoccupation when it seems to be in almost every literary essay or book dealing with vampires and most especially Dracula?

Twitchell (1996) gives us, as readers, a different aspect to examine:

“Ironically, Dracula, the greatest vampire novel, is the work of literature that takes the vampire out of fiction and returns him to folklore”  (132)

The tale is recounted in a variety of extracts – letters, transcriptions of phonographic records, diary entries, newspaper article references. They are produced at the hands of Jonathan Harker, Mina Harker, John Seward and Abraham Van Helsing – they contain remembered conversations, descriptions of areas, buildings and events, all recalled later, as Harker points out in the first quote. We are guided by their words and the story which is built around them as the main raconteurs of the events – yet the one character whose written point of view that is missing is that of Dracula himself. His words and actions are only passed to us through these recollections of all that happened – his written contributions consists of a few notes and letters addressed to Harker as the latter travels to Castle Dracula the outset of the novel. Why, of all the characters in the book, is the cultured, well read eponymous anti-hero the only one of the major protagonists whose thoughts and outlook are NOT presented to the reader? Simply to state that it is because he is the ‘baddy’ and the rest are ‘goodies’ or that, as Churchill pointed out, history (even invented literary history) is written by the victors, is a much too simplistic answer. How far is the tale of folkloric legends and superstitions, and how far does it run deeper than this? Can we, by examining a literary “what if”, look at the possible deeper meaning of the novel? The “what if” – “what if Dracula had put forward his point of view and interpretation of the events?”

Two caveats – first – I am not looking to become a Dracula apologist, turning him into a hero in the mould of the “Daywalker” of the Blade films, the warrior of Underworld or most particularly, the brooding, spoilt teenage used for a vampire in Twilight. Dracula is and must remain Dracula and the deeds he carries out unquestioned – the motives may be the telling part. Second,

Any reading raises suspicions “that we pretended was the author’s meaning was in fact only our own”  (106-7). This is the delusional possibility that lurks within every act of criticism: analysts/interpreters may “see things” in texts that are the product of their own desires, fantasies and delusions. (Scott Brewster, “Seeing Things: Gothic and the Madness of Interpretation” in A New Companion to the Gothic 485)

Simply to over interpret any literary text leads very possibly to the imposition of our own ideas rather than understanding the work in the way the author intended (though it could equally be argued that such an understanding via our own experiences is that which must be, as we can understand it in no other way!)

Perhaps the first question to ask would be why Dracula, wielder of power, a feudal lord who had complete dominion over those in his lands, would choose to leave this and head to London where he will be unknown? As the centre of the Empire and the largest conurbation in the world at the time, London was a cosmopolitan centre, a centre of economic, scientific and military power. It was, however, a city divided. The huge wealth of the West End was in striking contrast when juxtaposed with the abject poverty and horror of life in the East End. Dracula, published in 1897, was only nine years after the terror of the Whitechapel killings by the apparently self-named Jack the Ripper. This would surely be the obvious place for Dracula’s new regime. Here, he might be anonymous among the teeming, multi-national throngs of the London populace, but also where he could use that anonymity to his own perfidious ends. In a city where violence is nothing unusual, where a multiple killer has escaped the noose for his crimes a mere decade prior to the Count’s arrival, this would surely be the evident locus to begin whatever plan he wishes to carry through. In transferring his physical situation to the West (London) from the East (Transylvania), is he a latter day symbol of the barbarism and superstition which had been made incarnate in the Huns and their leader Attila in the latter days of the Western Roman Empire? Is he the one who will succeed where Attila failed? Dracula links himself in his ancestry to the nomadic, warrior tribes who swept in from the North and the East, linking his familial origins to such by ties of honour and blood, and above all, violence. Indeed, Wasson (“The Politics of Dracula”, 1966, 24-7) went so far as to posit that Stoker, recognising the rise of the ideals of fascism in Central and Eastern Europe, made these incarnate in Dracula’s person, battling the Western values which are represented in the community of allies who face up to him (eg Law in Harker, Science in Seward, Christianity in Van Helsing et al), though this, I feel, is perhaps taking the interpretation one step too far, for the reasons cited in Brewster above.

In this move to London, however, there is no rejection of the standard Gothic setting. Though he has migrated to the metropolis of modernity and scientific advancement, Dracula’s home is still to be the old, decaying house, Carfax, where he can still be wrapped in the trappings of all that he would find familiar. In this, Dracula is painted to be:

…the sublime synthesis of the human and supernatural terrors of Gothic writing, he is both villain and ghostly diabolical agent whose magic and power cannot be reduced to mere tricks or effects of overindulgent, superstitious imagination: more than rational, he serves to elicit rather than dispel superstitious beliefs, demanding, not a return to reason and morality, but a reawakening of spiritual energies and sacred awe. (Fred Botting, “Gothic (The New Critical Idiom)” 103

In such a representation, can we begin to view anything from Dracula’s point of view? Indeed, is he merely a symbol of evil, superstition and primitivism, something which has no real character to analyse? Is this the reason that, after his continual presence in the first half of the novel, he more or less disappears as a physical character in the most part of the latter half, only becoming a physical presence again in the denouement where he his presence is requisite only to be extinguished at the hands of the modernists represented in the other protagonists? Early in the novel, Dracula explains why he wishes to remove himself to London – he wishes to be:

…a stranger in a strange land…men know him not – and to know not is to care not for. I am content if I am like the rest, so that no man stops if he sees me, or pause in his speaking if he hears my words, to say ‘Ha, ha! a stranger!’ I have been so long a master that I would be master still – or at least that none other should be master of me.’ (20)

In this, is Dracula, as the personification of the ‘synthesis of the human and supernatural terrors’, stating that he is the power which will, while remaining hidden from view, fight and vanquish the modern which is represented in the Western protagonists? He will not be a stranger, but as the atavistic vampire, he will use the powers at his disposal to remain as much master in London as he is in Transylvania? He is the epitome of Freud’s Unheimliche – Uncanny – he is the terror, the power of the unknown, but equally as part of the familiar by fitting into the social structure of Victorian London without being the stranger, no longer the ‘other’.

Why did we not get part at least of Dracula’s testimony? Partially, the social mores of the later Victorian England. Dracula is not just a representation of pure evil. He is also licentiousness, unfettered sexual depravity and perhaps most shockingly for the time, the corrupter of the innocent represented in Lucy Westenra and Mina Murray (ie prior to her marriage when her sexual innocence would be at an end through the consummation of the marriage). As Hughes states:

Sexuality functions as the key to the uncanny, the “real” meaning behind the unease associated with the supernatural. (Hughes in A New Companion to the Gothic, 212)

His successful despoiling of Lucy and turning her to a vampire is one of the most shocking episodes, and something which per se would deny the possibility of there being any testimony from the direct words of the Count. What there is of his attitude is only that which can be reported by the others in the novel, that which must be not an apology for the vampire (how can one be an apologist for pure evil?), but the parts which show him simply for what he is – this also demonstrated in the (even more shocking for the contemporary audience) overt sexual predatoriness demonstrated first by the vampiresses in Dracula’s castle and then in the reanimated, undead Lucy. Unlike Anne Rices’ LeStat, who does put forward a vampire’s point of view, Dracula cannot. The evolution of the mores from Late Victorian to modern times allow for a sympathetic view, somewhat ignoring the truth of the vampire (as in the Twilight series of books where the brooding teen vampire is rendered the hero) or in allowing the succumbing to the need for something as “beautiful and as devastating as my kill” (Vampire Chronicles, 1977, 36), both of which being attitudes which would be unconscionable to a Victorian audience. The lust and misuse of innocence, the abandoning of the food, the “banquet” which means no more to him than a plate of soup would to a human, the idea that a pure maiden might be simply a meal which remains as much in the vampire’s memory as a side of beef would to a human, despite the use of the most primitive of sexual instincts to win access to that food, is the horror. In this, we are, as Freud’s Uncanny demand, made to face something of ourselves in the vampire, though it is carried to the absolute extreme, the hyperbole of overt carnality and degeneracy and the consumption of the life force in the drinking of the blood, and therefore enough beyond what we are to allow us to distance ourselves from its being a true representation of ourselves. A vampire could only become acceptable, and therefore have the right to be represented in his own testimony if he were to recant these practices, and he would ergo no longer be a valid participant as he would no longer be a vampire. As Dracula is THE archetypal vampire, the greatest of them all, the controller of the supernatural powers and nature as demonstrated in his control over the “children of the night”, that is something he could by definition NOT leave as it is his very being, his purest essence. To allow Dracula to speak in his own words would be to deny his reality, deny that which he is and must ever be. For Dracula to be Dracula, he must remain silent other than in the words of others in later documents written by his destroyers.

Gothic Literature – A Reflection of Social Change – 1 Religion Part 2 Vampyres, Vampires, Vampiri – Polidori’s Vampyre

ASK anyone to name a Gothic monster, the chances are that the first mentioned will be the Vampire. Will everyone have the same image? Certainly not! Research the listed standard images, all from tales of the vampiric – which would be the archetype you would choose? 

Vanrney the Vampire             Carmilla                                        Nosferatu

Bela Lugosi  Dracula               Christopher Lee Dracula         Louis Jourdan Dracula

Leslie Nielsen Dracula           Gary OldmanDracula                Kate Beckinsale Underworld

Robert Pattinson (Twilight)

Each of these depictions covers the representation of a vampire at various times in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The main vampire among the pictures is, inevitably, Count Dracula, though never truly twice the same! In these, however, can we see any noticeable changes in attitude, and are these reflected in the social constructs of the era they were produced?

The concept of vampirism is, as far as we can tell, as old as civilisation – there were fiends which fed from human blood in the tales of Mesopotamia, China, Greece, Rome… While not necessarily the vampire which we would automatically recognise today, they were, nevertheless creatures of nightmare which consumed the life force of their victims through draining them of blood.

The idea of the modern (perhaps better termed European) vampire, was mainly prevalent in the areas we now know as Romania, Hungary, Czech Republic, Slovakia and into Eastern German and Hungary – what is generalised as Central Europe, though also in Greece, the Balkans and Turkey as well. It is, however, through Stoker’s 1897 novel Dracula that the standard association of the area of Transylvania with the homeland of vampires was born.

“For, let me tell you, he (the vampire) is known everywhere that men have been. In old Greece, in old Rome; he flourish in Germany all over, in France, in India even in the Chersones; and in China…the wake of the Berserker Icelander, the devil-begotten Hun, the Slav, the Saxon, the Magyar.” (Dracula 239)

Interestingly, the great imperial power, Britain, is apparently free of resident vampires…

How might we interpret this as a reflection of the ideas of the time?

What was Britain’s role on the wider world stage?

Why does this make Dracula’s determination to move to England, and more specifically London, all the more significant?

Why was this the chosen area? Primarily, the link is to the fifteenth century Voivode of Wallachia, Vlad Ţepeș or Vlad Dracul (also known, for fairly self evident reasons, as Vlad the Impaler). Unlike Stoker’s creation, however, this Dracula was an historical figure, and one who is still regarded as a hero and freedom fighter, defender of Christendom from the Ottoman Empire when it was under threat. The only portrait of Vlad III dates from the very early sixteenth century and hangs in Schloß Ambras in Innsbruck, Austria:

vlad_tepes_002

The portrait here, when compared with the Count of the novel, is  most certainly not the vampire lord, bearing no real resemblance to Stoker’s creation, though van Helsing does intimate a link:

“I have asked my friend Armenius, of Buda-Pesth University, to make is record…The Draculas were, says Armenius, a great and noble race, though now and again were scions who were held by the coevals to have had dealings with the Evil One.” (240)

Why, then, would Transylvania be chosen as the key area in the first part of the tome? An explanation is offered at the start of the novel:

“I had visited the British Museum, and made search among the books and maps of the library regarding Transylvania; it had struck me that some foreknowledge of the country could hardly fail to have some importance in dealing with a noble of that country. I find that the district he named is in the extreme east of the country, just on the borders of three states, Transylvania, Moldavia and Bukovina, in the midst of the Carpathian mountains; one of the wilds and least known portions of Europe.” (Dracula, 1)

It is the strangeness, the otherness, the idea that it verges on the edge of civilisation, still feudal in nature and riddled with superstition that makes it so attractive as its setting.

This is something which we find in many of the nineteenth century vampire tales. The standardly accepted first, Polidori’s The Vampyre, while starting in England, has Ruthven and Aubrey travel to the continent, first to Italy and then on to Greece, travelling eastward, and therefore, by definition, away from the rational West and to the superstitious Orthodox East, via Catholic Italy. Is this unusual for the time? Hardly! This is the standard route for the Grand Tour which involved taking in the homes of Classical civilisation, the civilisations upon which the rationality of Western Europe was grounded. Indeed, it is highly likely that Aubrey and Ruthven’s trip is based on that of Lord Byron’s creation (Byron was Polidori’s patient, and cited as ‘mad, bad and dangerous to know) of a young narrator and Augustus Darvell, someone of whom the narrator was in awe, though in The Vampyre, Ruthven is most certainly Byron! Aubrey parts company with Ruthven in Rome after finding out the latter had seduced the daughter of a mutual acquaintance, heading out to Greece where he falls in love with the innocent figure of the peasant girl Ianthe who is continually distracting Aubrey from his drawings of the classical ruins with legends of vampires. The key hint of the inevitable conclusion to the sojourn in Greece:

“She detailed to him the traditional appearance of these monsters, and its horror was increased, by hearing a pretty accurate description of Lord Ruthven; he, however, still persisted in persuading her, that there could be no truth in her fears, though at the same time he wondered at the many coincidences which had all tended to excite a belief in the supernatural power of Lord Ruthven.”

In this association, we see the standard Gothic trope of das Unheimliche of Freud (1919) – the frightening supernatural brings us back to that with which we are familiar – in recognising Ruthven in the descriptions of the ‘vampyre’, Aubrey has an insight of highest importance, though he does not act to save Ianthe, and is unable to save either his sister or himself after the return to London due to an oath of silences he swears to the dying Ruthven after they are ambushed by bandits. The resurrected (or rather reanimated) vampire, Ruthven, is able, due to Aubrey’s holding to his oath until it is too late, to become the dominant power of the tale as the oath is extracted BEFORE the ‘death’.

The role of religion in The Vampyre is minimal, though, according to O’Malley (2006):

“…this fascination with Ruthven mirrors the Gothic fascination with Catholicism as unredeemable alien, deadly and yet irresistibly seductive.” (147)

While this is debatable (the fascination could equally be with Byron and his reputation after Lady Caroline Lamb’s 1816 novel, Glenarvon, and the image of him left in the public mind), there could easily be an element of truth to the mirroring of the emotions evinced by the portrayal of the Church of Rome in the Gothic in general. Equally one can see that the Catholic would be relatively difficult to introduce as the protagonists, in Aubrey and Ruthven, are both English, and therefore, despite much of the supernatural taking place in Catholic/Orthodox countries, not part of the “Papal Aggression” which caused such fear among the evangelical clergy and the conservatively Protestant populace of the British mainland. Unlike later vampires, though, Ruthven does not, by his bite, infect those upon whom he feeds, turning them into the Undead as later vampire fiction will intimate.  The vampire here is part of the establishment as well, not simply part of the populace. It could perhaps be argued that he mirrors the growing influence and fear from the Oxford Movement which was to reach its heights two decades later, where the Catholic ritualism was adopted by a sector of the established church and was to develop into the Anglo-Catholic wing of the Church of England, where the infiltrator was not a foreigner, was not a stranger, but was a corrupted limb of the established social hierarchy, a canker which might fester, grow and infect the entire body of the church and state, sucking the pure Protestant faith dry: as Henry Morley (cited in O’Malley) stated in 1852:

“To ‘an honest ghost’ one has no objection; but an animated corpse which goes about in Christian attire, and although never known to eat, or drink, or shake hands, is allowed to sit at good men’s feasts; which renews its odious life every hundred years by sucking a young lady’s blood, after fascinating her by motions which resemble mesmerism burlesqued…passes all bounds of toleration.” (149)

(This is evidently based upon the early description of Ruthven:

“…it was caused by their fearing the observation of one, who by his colourless cheek, which never gained a warmer tint from the blush of conscious shame or from any powerful emotion, appeared to be above human feelings and sympathies, the fashionable names for frailties and sins. His peculiarities caused him to be invited to every house.” (33))

The infiltration here can easily be twisted to associate with the perceived heartlessness, superstition and corruption of the Catholic Church in the eyes of the more rabid Protestant critics, (eg the “motions which resemble mesmerism burlesqued” might be exaggerated to refer to the liturgical movements and genuflections et al of the Mass, the “animated corpse…in Christian attire” a reference to the again deemed spiritually dead Catholicism which exists though only covered in the thinnest veneer of Christianity – such heavily biased and anti Catholic ideas were commonplace at the time, as we have seen), it could be equally argued that this is most certainly a step too far, and that the corruption incarnate in Ruthven is in fact a moral corruption rather than any religious connotation whatsoever, particularly when the association of the the two nobles, Ruthven and Byron.

Sec. School – Gothic Literature – A Reflection of Social Change – 1 Religion

GOTHIC literature has experienced its major times of popularity at times of great change and uncertainty in society. Its birth in the Castle of Otranto (Walpole, 1764) and The Monk (Lewis, 1796) both released at the times when some of the most violent and rapid social changes were occurring – the start of the Industrial Revolution and the concomitant changes in the social structure and population distribution, and the American Revolution and the French Revolution – the former a radical break from a colonial power and new ideas and structures (though based supposedly heavily on Ancient Athens and Republican Rome), the latter one of the bloodiest episodes in European history since the Albigensian Crusades, culminating in regicide and the Terror under Robespierre et al and the removal of the Ancien Régime.

Changes were not, however, confined to these three episodes alone. The great population movements from the agriculturally based economies of earlier times were giving way to the new mechanisation of many if not most industries with such inventions as the ‘Spinning Jenny’ by James Hargreaves in Stanhill, Oswaldtwistle, in Lancashire in 1764, coinciding with the first publication of Walpole’s first Gothic tale. As work became harder to find in the rural areas, jobs were sought in the growing urban areas, principally the major metropolises: London, Glasgow, Manchester, Birmingham and Sheffield inter alia. Such population migrations led to very rapid growth in these cities throughout the very end of the eighteenth and the whole of the nineteenth centuries as the traditional agrarian culture collapsed and the heavy industries sucked in more and more labourers, resulting in massive expansion in the slum areas and workhouses of all these cities and others. At the other end of the social pyramid, the aristocracy was in many ways obliged to surrender, even if extremely reluctantly, certain of its privileges as the nineteenth century progressed, there being the ever present memory of 1789 in France and the effects of the Year of Revolution, 1848. It is, however, on the symbolism of religious life and how these changes are reflected in the Gothic literature until the appearance of the vampire as the supernatural being that I shall concentrate in this, principally looking at the works of Walpole and Lewis.

1829 saw the passing of “An Act for the Relief of His Majesty’s Roman Catholic Subjects.” This Catholic Emancipation Act removed many of the heavy restrictions which had been placed on UK subjects who adhered to the faith of the Church of Rome – the Act of Union with Ireland of 1800 and the Irish agitation led by Daniel O’Connell (1775–1847), particularly in 1828-29 meant that for the first time since the Reformation nearly three centuries before (with short lived exceptions such as under the reign of Mary Tudor), Roman Catholic clergy were to be seen in the streets of the cities, freely setting up mission churches and celebrating the Mass, particularly in the poor urban areas due to the oft times large Irish populations. This conflicted greatly with the innate anti-Papist ideals of the Protestant clergy and the members of the evangelical churches. The culmination on this front came in the form of the Oxford Movement of the 1840s which saw a small, but majorly influential and intellectually powerful, group of clergy in the established Anglican Church begin to introduce “Papist practices” into their own churches. A tract of 1874 (Ritualism: A Sermon) states:


“Jesuits (the most powerful and influential Roman Catholic Monastic order), spreading their nets to catch the unwary, would, if they could, bring back the days of popery, and set up in God’s place the old harlot of Rome. This evil spirit comes to us in the garb and under the name of Ritualism – a mild form of Romanism – seeking to attract us to its service by a gorgeous ceremonial and a dazzling spectacle.” (My italics)

So what? What has this to do with Gothic literature?

From the earliest works of literature which are classed as Gothic, many have a strong element tied to the beliefs and practices of Roman Catholicism – either, as demonstrated above, vehemently anti-Catholic (such as Lewis’ “The Monk”), or, as can be argued from certain works, at least an acceptance of the importance of Catholicism in the fight against the evil beings, most especially vampires, through symbols and practices or otherwise (such as in Stoker’s “Dracula”). Such allusions in the negative views are scarcely surprising given the innate hatred of all things Popish among the evangelicals – in 1840, Stowell (an Anglican clergyman) associated the growing Oxford Movement with Roman Catholicism and the barbaric practices of the Mediaeval Inquisition, though writing in terms fitting of any Gothic novel:

“Let the sad change of opinion respecting her (ie Catholic Emancipation, the allowance of Roman Catholic Clergy and the Oxford Movement), which has already so deeply betrayed us, concede to Popery her ancient ascendency, and the fires of Smithfield will blaze anew (reference to the 282 Protestants claimed burned at the stake in the reign of Mary Tudor), the dark dungeons of the Inquisition will again gape for their victims, and fatally and fearfully will the mother of abominations (reference to the Whore of Babylon in Revelations, taken by evangelicals even now to be the Roman Catholic Church) will evince her infallibility (this was passed as Papal Infallibility during the First Vatican Council of 1869-70 where the Pope was declared infallible when speaking ex cathedra (on matters of faith alone)) by again becoming ‘drunken with the blood of the Saints.’”

These anti Catholic ideas were far from new. There was a mistrust of those who followed the ‘old Faith’ and the perceived dangers and ‘foreigness’ of the Catholic practices under the tyranny of an evil and corrupt dictator in Rome, a sensual and degenerate, wanton and perverse, dragging the pure innocents of evangelical Protestantism down into the anterooms of Hell,

“She is both the ‘dog [that] returneth to his vomit’ and an upstart woman defying the authority of the masculine John Bull in her ravenous attempt to feed upon England.” (O’Malley, 132)

Catholicism appears in the opening paragraph of the preface to Castle of Otranto (First Ed.)

“The following work was found in the library of an ancient Catholic family in the north of England.”

That this manuscript is printed in 1529 in Naples and that a translation of an earlier manuscript  which dates from the Crusader period (ie some point between 1095 and 1243, though no more is said for definite) places the tale both in Italy, the corrupt home of Catholicism, and in the distant, violent past, in a time before the Reformation, and as such when even England was the “Dowry of Mary”. Why do this?

“Miracles, visions, necromancy, dreams, and other preternatural events, are exploded now even from romances. That was not the case when the author wrote, much less when the sort itself is supposed to have happened.”

In removing the setting from the era in which he lives and setting it so far back, Walpole can justify his introduction of the superstitious, the otherworldly, the ‘uncanny’ (Freud defined this as the class of frightening things that leads us back to what is known and familiar.) It is via the superstitious, the preternatural and the exposing of the degenerate nature of those in power, both noble and clerical, that the reader will be brought back to the real and the familiar, having learned to reject the corrupt Mediaeval dominated by Catholicism in the Inquisition (though it is worth noting that in “On the Psychology of the Uncanny” (1906): Ernst Jentsch came to the following conclusions: 1) Uncanny = fear of the unfamiliar; 2) Uncanny = based on intellectual uncertainty.)  This bringing of the supernatural is thus to be treated as a literary technique and the use of such is placed squarely at the feet of the original author:

“Terror, the author’s principal engine, prevents the story from ever languishing; and it is so often contrasted by pity, that the mind is kept in a constant vicissitude of interesting passions.”

Placing the tale in the far past and the use of the horrific with the author of the original tale, it becomes acceptable in the Age of Reason whilst also appeasing the anti-Catholic sentiments of the time:

“It is not unlikely that an artful priest might endeavour to turn their own arms on the innovators (ie. those who were the Reformers against Catholicism), and might avail himself of his abilities as an author to confirm the populace in their ancient errors and superstitions.” (My italics).

While Walpole’s work carries an anti-Catholic message, it is tame in comparison to the rabid anti-Catholicism in Lewis’ The Monk first edition 1796. From its opening scene, the standard trope of Gothic anti-Romanism are present:

“Scarcely had the Abbey Bell tolled for five minutes, and already was the Church of the Capuchins thronged with Auditors. Do not encourage the idea that the Crowd was assembled either from motives of piety or thirst of information. But very few were influenced by those reasons; and in a city where such despotic sway as in Madrid to seek for true devotion would be a fruitless attempt…The women came to show themselves, the Men to see the Women.”

The setting is the Continent – Madrid, capital of the country which was home to the Inquisition. The Crowd are there either through hypocrisy, sloth (“no better means of employing their time till the play began”), coquettishness on the part of the Women and pure lust on the part of the Men, not through true “piety or thirst of information”, both of which, it might be intuited, would be the motives of a true Protestant believer – the use of both in comparison with the Catholics in Madrid implies that such would be the norm for attending Church services among the readers. Those who are there “truly anxious to hear the Preacher were a few antiquated devotees, and half a dozen rival Orators, determined to find fault with and ridicule the discourse.” Again, the insinuation that only the elderly and those who would attend to attack and mock for hypocritical reasons are there for any practical purpose rather than showing off and lasciviousness – these are what the Reader is to expect in the clutches of Roman Catholicism.

Perhaps unusual for the time in our minds (though remember that Tom Jones had been published in 1749, and the infinitely more shocking Fanny Hill: Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure in 1748) is the theme of sexuality and lasciviousness as well as themes of cross dressing, pseudo-homosexuality and sexual obsession which are central to the plot in the form of Ambrosio’s desire for Matilda (though while cross dressing, believed by Ambrosio to be a young monk, Rosario):

“(Ambrosio) could not help sometimes in indulging a desire secretly to see the face of his Pupil.”

Even after he discovers the truth of Matilda’s gender half way through the tale, Ambrosio’s desire, it is hinted, is not for the powerful and domineering Matilda, but for the gentle Rosario, the one who was in awe of his mentor:

“Every moment convinced him of the astonishing powers of her mind: But what She gained in the opinion of the Man, She lost with interest in the affection of the Lover. He regretted Rosario, the fond, the gentle, the submissive: He grieved that Matilda preferred the virtues of his sex to those of her own.”

This again is a theme which is frequent in the Gothic – the rejection and overpowering of traditional gender roles assigned by the society of the time – these can be seen again and again (the dominant Carmilla, the dominant character of the unDead Lucy Westenra in Dracula,  and the passivity of Harker under the dominance of the three female vampires in Dracula’s castle inter alia). Matilda becomes the incarnation of all that Lewis sees as perverted in his perceived superstitions of Catholicism, its hypocrisy, its lasciviousness, sexual confusion and inability to protect its believers – she disguises herself as he; she parallels Ambrosio’s relationship to the Virgin Mary in the name she uses as the monk (Rosario – the rosary) she is innocent on the surface, and yet corrupt just beneath that surface, a hypocrite par excellence where all that is gentle and good is but for show to get her own way and bring down the man seen to be a “Saint” by the naive Catholics. When she casts off the male surface, she becomes a sexual succubus, casting an illusion of the Lord of Hell to extend her power over Ambrosio, but not through fear – through homosexual lust:

“He beheld a Figure more beautiful, than Fancy’s pencil ever drew. It was a Youth…form and face unparalleled and unrivalled. He was perfectly naked”

The culmination lies in the revealing of the trans-gender Rosario/Matilda as a genderless daemon sent to drag Ambrosio down to Hell after his final rejection of Salvation.

The danger here was, however, something which the Protestant English could look on with shock, early Gothic tales backed every prejudice which they held against the Church of Rome, as in the eighteenth century it was distant and something done by ‘foreigners’ – with the Catholic Emancipation Act in 1829 and the Puseyite and Oxford Movements, introducing the spectre (as seen by the Evangelical Protestants) of the Church of Rome, the “Great Whore” of the Book of Revelation, the superstition and perceived tyranny of Papal power now transferred to mainland United Kingdom – the ‘real threat’ of the ‘Real Presence’. From this point, as far as the religious trope of the Gothic is concerned, that the vampire first makes its appearance in the mainstream, starting with the form of Lord Ruthven in Polidori’s Vampyre. It is with the seductive power of these atavistic anthropomorphic forms or evil in literature of the nineteenth century that I shall deal with next.

Part 2 Lucy as UnDead – a Significant Episode?

How does Stoker bring the men who loved Lucy to the point where they willingly are complicit in her ultimate demise? That she had been torn, arguably flirting (to use a modern idea) with the three men, though in reality in a state of confusion as to which of them was to be her husband is evident from her correspondence with Mina. Again and again, van Helsing, the hardened warrior against the evil which is incarnate in the Count – he has, for example, brought the Consecrated Host from Amsterdam as he has an indulgence so to do and to use it in waging war against evil – refers to her in terms of almost paternal gentleness. It is when they are waiting for her return to her tomb after a night’s hunting,

“we could see that the lips were crimson with fresh blood, and that the stream had trickled over her chin and stained the purity of her lawn death-robe.”

Her purity of life, symbolised in the white shroud has been stained and corrupted by her feeding, the traces of death on her face and breast being her source of undead existence.

It is this horror which is the cause of even van Helsing’s “iron nerve” failing. This again gives us the juxtaposition of purity and corruption which is a leitmotiv of the oeuvre. As with the three female vampires, it is the absolute rejection of all that would have been seen as being womanly and fitting of her gender which brings the vampire hunters to that point where they can destroy her: her “eyes unclean and full of hell fire instead of the gentle orbs we knew.” It is a common proverb that the eyes are the window to the soul; in this, Stoker emphasises the corruption and damnation which the Count releases in all those whom he touches and turns. Again,

“her eyes blazed with unholy light, and the face became wreathed with a voluptuous smile.”

The sexualising of innocence and her using it as a weapon is something which we, as the readers, experiencing the whole episode through Jack Seward’s eyes and his description, are to find equally disturbing and repulsive. For us, however, it is the rejection of the symbolic motherhood which elicits the first response from Arthur, her beloved:

“With a careless motion, she flung to the ground, callous as a devil, the child that up to now she had clutched strenuously to her breast, growling over it as a dog growls over a bone.”

In this , we can again turn to the iconography of Roman Catholicism – the image of the Virgin Mary clutching the Infant Christ to her breast, the Holy Mother, nourishing and protecting the Child in the symbol of pure motherhood. Here, Lucy, in daemonic, unDead form, rejects the child, throwing it down and then being prepared to feed on that child rather than nourishing it. The love of the maternal instinct is replaced by “a cold-bloodedness in the act”. As she advances to Arthur, using the sexualised weapon of seduction which she now wields freely as the unDead, it is van Helsing who intervenes with his Crucifix, again Catholic weapons wielded by the only Catholic among the main combatants. It is evident, however, that this, while effective and therefore pure, is still not quite acceptable to the Protestantism of the Victorian era as it, as well as the Consecrated Host, are brought from abroad and are wielded by a foreigner, and alien in the society in which he fights, though, coming from the Netherlands, less strange, exotic and foreign than the Count. Moreover, he will not act of his own volition in the killing of Lucy – this can only come from Arthur – husband, and Englishman:

“Van Helsing broke the silence by asking Arthur, “Answer me, oh my friend! Am I to proceed in my work?”

“Do as you will, friend. Do as you will. There can be no horror like this ever any more.” And he groaned in spirit.”

Despite there being no alternative – how could Holmwood say no with the inevitable consequences of such, as she would turn each child on which she fed bit by bit to nosferatu? – van Helsing must nevertheless ask and receive permission, and it is Arthur who must hammer the stake home to grant his beloved the release and peace which she needs as van Helsing reads the requisite prayers and psalms from the Missal (note , the prayer book of the Roman Catholic Church and at that time in Latin). In the destruction of the evil and the driving out of the UnDead, Lucy is released and, in death, “…with her face of unequalled sweetness and purity.” This is the last image which Arthur and Quincey have – it is the two medics who complete the gory end which is necessary that she be not again summoned to UnDead by the Count.

The significance of the long episode of the horror and liberation of Lucy’s soul is made clear only at the end of the whole process – van Helsing:

“Shall you not all help me? We have learned to believe, all of us, is it not so? And since so, do we not see our duty? Yes! And do we not promise to go on to the bitter end?”

Each in turn, we took his hand, and the promise was made.”

It is the episode of Lucy’s death which seals the fellowship that will seek out and rid the the world of the evil which has come from the exotic East of Europe to corrupt and feed in the metropolis of London.

Some points to think about:

  • Why is Harker, the Western protagonist of the first part of the novel, the one human male who is NOT present in this episode? What is the significance (other than that he is busy in the legal practice)? Why is he NOT involved in the fight against the evil which he as been instrumental in unleashing on the capital? Is this an incongruity in the gender expected roles of the late nineteenth century?
  • How does the reliance on Catholic symbolism and ritual enhance the exotic and strangeness of the episode?
  • To what extent do you think this would have been an effective literary and metaphorical device at the time of publication (1897)?
  • In the same year as Dracula was published, Walter Walsh (The Secret History of the Oxford Movement) wrote: “The ‘woman drunken with the blood of the saints’ (Rev. xvii.6) has not lost her cruel nature…Her persecuting laws are still the same as when in the Dark Ages her infernal Inquisition performed, unhindered, its bloodthirsty work.” Taking that the ‘woman’ and the ‘she’ is the Whore of Babylon (taken as representing the Roman Catholic Church by evangelical Protestants), how does this contemporary view of Catholicism help us to understand the impact of the use of Catholicism to fight the ancient evil incarnate in Dracula himself?

Secondary School English Literature: Dracula – Bram Stoker – An Introduction Part 1 to the Death of Lucy Westenra

FOR those encountering the Gothic as a genre in their studies of English literature, there can be few, if any, better places to start than with Bram Stoker’s oeuvre of 1897. The novel Dracula has played a major role in the modern day Gothic and its inception into the modern era. It contains a tightly constructed plot, uses a wide variety of narrative techniques, though principally relying on letters and diary extracts as the main narration, and draws the reader into the darkest recesses of the human psyche besides being an excellent tale. It does, however, go deeper than this.

First questions for the school reader:

  • Why does the book begin with the young solicitor’s clerk, Harker, travelling from the West to the East? What can we infer from the quote: “I read that every known superstition in the world is gathered into the horseshoe of the Carpathians, as if it were the centre of some sort of imaginative whirlpool; if so my stay may be very interesting.”?
  • What is the atmosphere created by Stoker’s use of language as Harker leaves behind Germany and heads through the Eastern countries, travelling towards Romania and the province of Transylvania?
  • How does Stoker use imagery to pull the reader into Harker’s sense of confusion and feeling lost as he travels East – why is the use of travelling by train important? (Remember – 1897!) What significance is there in the train lines ending and the carriages and carts as he travels through Bohemia?
  • How does Stoker contrast the rationality of Harker’s own background and the Britain he has left behind with the superstition and apparent primitivism of the people he encounters as he travels to Castle Dracula?

After his arrival at Castle Dracula, we find a very marked juxtaposition of the old (the castle building, the use of candlelight rather than gas lighting etc) and the modern (the wide variety of modern magazines, journals, books et al in the library). Dracula is constantly questioning Harker about England, and especially London; there are frequent mentions of ideas and technology which are modern to the nineteenth century (eg Harker’s writing of his journal in shorthand, a system developed by Isaac Pitman, and first presented in 1837) – as the struggles against Dracula’s atavistic vampire progress, we encounter the use of typewriters, telephones, the telegraph system, phonographs and Kodak photographic equipment used against the ancient evil which the Count embodies – where he is able, in primitive Transylvania, to dominate and control through fear and the horror he brings (if we consider it in clear terms, Dracula and his female entourage would account for fewer deaths in the area than the average outbreak of any of the viral illnesses which frequented the pre antibiotic era) the Count must face the modern ideas and technologies which counter his supernatural abilities. Van Helsing, doctor and professor, can travel from Amsterdam to Whitby and London very quickly using the modern steam ship crossings, yet he also manipulates and effectively wields the traditional weapons against the vampire lord – especially the Crucifix and garlic to drive the vampires back, and the use of the Consecrated Host and Holy Water to cleanse and injure the undead. It is noticeable also that the religious symbolism, used here in a Gothic tale of horror, is based on the symbols and rites of the Roman Catholic Church, despite the innate anti-Catholicism of much of Victorian England outside of the Irish ghettoes and the old Catholic areas such as Lancaster in the North West.

Dracula himself is an unusual anti hero – his presence, after being fairly continuous in the first part of the novel in Romania, is often not corporeal in the rest of the book, but rather a dark and brooding fear that permeates the whole of the novel, just out of eyesight, but haunting the whole structure. His ability to transmute from human form to animal (bat or wolf) makes him a bridge between the civilised human (the cultured aristocrat) and the feral being which instils fear; he bridges the feudal world of his Transylvania homeland and the modern world hub of London, the largest city in the world and mistress of the largest Empire; feeding on the blood of the living rejuvenates him and changes him from the old of the East to the young and vibrant of the new; and, perhaps most significantly for the Gothic genre, as the Undead, he bridges the widest gulf, that between the living and the dead: though belonging truly to neither, he has a level of control over both, particularly in Lucy and then Mina. As readers, we are no more able than the human protagonists to put a concrete identity on the Count and this is a large part in his fascination and attraction to each of us.

In being an incarnation of the feral – the base parts of human nature – the Count, and indeed his female underlings, are the bringers of lasciviousness and the areas of the human psyche which would bring shock to the Victorians – the scene where the female vampires attempt to seduce Harker in Castle Dracula would have been rather shocking to a Victorian audience – even in today’s world, it has a level of sensuality: ‘a wicked, burning desire that they would kiss me with those red lips’, yet the being of the seducers, the vampire women, combines the sensual with the repulsive, particularly as they then go on to feed on the baby in a full rejection of the maternal instinct and motherly role which would have been the expected norm of the the gender identity of the time. Here again the juxtaposition of lust as an uncontrolled desire with the pure love which Jonathan and Mina feel for each other and the sadness in the corruption of the confused love which Lucy has for her suitors and eventually true love for Arthur Holmwood brought by the vampire’s turning her to the undead. 

Thinking points:

– What is the significance of the quote:

Oh, the terrible struggle that I have had against sleep so often of late; the pain of the sleeplessness, or the pain of the fear of sleep, and with such unknown horror as it has for me! How blessed are some people, whose lives have no fears, no dreads; to whom sleep is a blessing that comes nightly, and brings nothing but sweet dreams.

  • The modern is used, as said above, to counter the Vampire Lord. What, however, can we intuit from the failure of medical science to save Lucy and the need for van Helsing to turn to the superstitious cures to give her ultimate release?
  • Up until the death of Lucy Westenra, how are the traditional social roles of the genders in Victorian society challenged? Is the reaction to this portrayed in a positive or a negative way? How can this be supported from the text?